Note 9 Screen Replacement Cost
After the questions have been formulated, they must be typed. Each question can be assigned to one of the four elementary question types:
- Scale (rank scale);
- free question.
However, the assignment to a question type is not arbitrary, because the question type is closely related to the answer options (characteristic values, characteristic) and also plays a role for the possibilities of the later evaluation! Each question type must fulfill certain criteria, which become more and more strict from selection to measure.
With a selection the different answer possibilities are called, which create clear allocations, thus must be selective. Choices come in two varieties: Multiple choice and single choice.
Multiple choice questions are a special form of choice questions in which multiple answer choices may be checked. Multiple choice is the most undemanding type of answer. However, it causes a lot of effort and headaches to find the possible answers or to limit oneself to certain aspects. In the case of evaluations, the possibilities hardly go beyond simple quantitative representations. For larger-scale projects, a preliminary survey with free questions can significantly reduce uncertainties. Example: Own vehicles: A) Bicycle B) Moped C) Motorcycle D) Car E) Other ___________ GrafStat automatically prefixes the answers with answer abbreviations, in this case capital letters. Up to 26 answer choices are allowed.
Single choice questions are a subtype of choice questions where only one answer choice may be checked. In a single choice, the answers must not overlap, they must form unique classes. In addition, the entire answer space must be covered, i.e. it must be possible to tick one answer in each case. In many cases, therefore, an answer such as “Other” or “Other” should be in the answer list. Example: Gender: a) female b) male GrafStat automatically prefixes the answers with the answer abbreviations, in this case lower case letters. Up to 26 answers are allowed.
In scale questions the answers have an internal order, a predefined sequence. The order is also called ranking (ordinal scale). This type of question is recommended, for example, for recording moods and expressions of opinion. For better understanding, the individual values are given terms. Often only the two outer extremes are named. GrafStat then displays the scale in the questionnaire in a single line, with the extreme terms to the left and right of the scale. Scales can have an even number or an odd number of values. Even-numbered scales have no middle and therefore no neutral value. Symmetrical scales can also be created, for example from -2 to +2. Such scales are suitable if the question allows a negative/positive assignment. In empirical social research, great efforts are made to construct meaningful scales for characteristics (e.g., intensity of interest in politics). Examples: How much do you like chocolate? very much 1 2 3 4 5 quite a bit What is your grade in mathematics? very good 1 2 3 4 5 6 unsatisfactory
If you want to clearly distinguish between negative and positive in a score, you can use a scale with a negative initial value. When making this decision, however, you should take into account that the scale design has a certain influence on the response behavior. If the scale is symmetrically structured, with a “neutral middle” (e.g. -2 -1 0 1 2), undecided (neutral) answers will be possible. If you do not specify a middle, i.e., use a scale with an even number (e.g., 1 = rather agree to 6 = rather disagree), then you require the respondent to make a clear decision.
Name all values or only the final values?
Aptly formulating all intermediate values sometimes causes difficulties. Consider whether you have found really clear and orderly formulations. It is often easier and better to label only the two extreme values. For symmetrical scales with a negative initial value, it is often sufficient to label the extreme values as well. Also consider the appearance on the questionnaire. The cross boxes appear lined up with the reduced labeling, with the designations on the two flanks.
In questionnaires there are often whole blocks of questions with the same scale. For such cases you can link the questions in GrafStat. In all forms, the questions then appear one below the other on the left and the checkboxes on the right. The label of the scale values is simply inserted above the checkboxes. Select a scale if
- …a characteristic can be ordered by size.
- …it is about estimations.
- …something is to be evaluated.
A scale is unsuitable
- …when determining whether something is present or given (yes/no).
- …for assignments (e.g. school attended: Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium, Gesamtschule).
Measured numbers pose the highest requirements. Measurement number questions require a unit of measurement. Measurement numbers must have a zero point and an equal distance between possible measurement values. Many physical measurement units fulfill this condition (e.g. length in cm, weight in kg or time in hours) (interval scale). GrafStat requires the specification of the measurement unit. For the purpose of input security, lower and upper limits and the number of decimal places are also recorded. Examples: Weight: ___ kilograms Age: ___ years TV consumption: ___ hours/day
Minimum and maximum value
The two values are used for control purposes. Already when entering the questionnaires, typing errors or intentional wrong entries are rejected by setting the minimum and maximum values. Set both values to the expected limits. Keep in mind that higher or lower values can no longer be recorded. Hint: If you want to work with comparative figures from other surveys or statistical yearbooks where groups were formed (e.g. age: 16-19, 20-29, 30-39 years etc. or income: under 500 Euro, up to 1000 Euro etc.), you should also adjust your survey to these groups. This facilitates the comparison during the evaluation and is even necessary e.g. for data handling functions like weighting. In this case, you should typecast the question as a single choice.
Free questions (open questions) have a special position. They cannot be statistically evaluated automatically, i.e. they can be typed in, but must be categorized and counted “by hand”! However, one cannot completely do without free (open) questions, because they fulfill helpful tasks. In a pre-survey, they are very well suited for the construction of a questionnaire in order to capture all interests of the target groups. Free (open) questions can also be used to obtain information that opens up completely unknown or previously unconsidered aspects.
What is a free question?
A free or open question is a question where the answer can be freely formulated. No pre-formulated answers and no checkboxes appear on the questionnaire, only a number of writing lines determined by you. A multi-line text field for text entry appears on the HTML form of the survey for the Internet. Notice: Free questions cannot be statistically counted and analyzed with GrafStat.
When to use a free question?
When you don’t know the possible answers but want to find out, when you don’t want to limit the answerer or when you need lively comments or similar. The free question can be helpful if you are designing a new questionnaire and want to find out the answer options for a single or multiple choice in a small preliminary survey, for example, or if you want to get other suggestions.
Evaluation of free questions
A free question cannot be counted automatically by the GrafStat software, but must be evaluated manually. Since the free question does not provide quantitative data, the evaluation will consist of collecting, ordering and categorizing the answers and counting them if necessary. GrafStat can be used to record the text of the free questions during data collection. During the evaluation, all answers to a free question are presented together in a text document and can be transferred to a word processor or other program for further processing. If the free question is part of a preliminary survey, you will subsequently
- group or categorize the answers,
- combine them into elective answers,
- formulate the items.
In the questionnaire of the main survey, you will then insert a selection question (single or multiple choice) with the most frequently mentioned answers to the free questions instead of the free question.
When formulating the answers, you should follow exactly the same instructions that apply to the formulation of the questions. Here, too, you should follow good examples if possible.
- Keep answers as short as possible;
- look for clear and apt terms;
- weed out duplicate and similar answers;
- weed out superfluous answers.
The argument in favor of a small number is that the respondent will find it more difficult to cope with a large number of answers than with a smaller number. In addition, especially in smaller surveys, the frequency of individual answers quickly tends towards zero if there are too many possible answers. Statistical evaluations then become quite problematic. Here you will find a series of questionsthat you can expect at the admission interview at the university. The questions come from different categories and are presented in a mixed form.
- Warm-up questions
- Performance motivation questions
- Questions about personality
- Resume questions
- Pressure & stress questions
What are your three greatest strengths?
The interviewer wants to know: Have you given any thought to these? Are the strengths relevant to higher education? Can you give a convincing answer? Answer choice: My strengths are 1., 2., 3. I can also give you examples of each of these strengths. (Examples from school/work)
What does your performance curve look like?
Interviewer wants to know: Do you have good time management or do you fritter away your day? Answer choice: I have pretty good time management, my performance peaks are around XY o’clock. (describe your daily routine)
Why do you want to study here of all places?
Interviewer wants to know: Are you just interested in studying or are you pursuing a career goal with it? Answer choice: My career goal is XY. I have considered several educational alternatives, your course of study best prepares me for my goals.
What did you like and dislike about your last educational institution or employer?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you speak poorly of former supervisors, colleagues/staff, systems? Answer choice: Mainly tell the positive things. Definitely not talk badly about others.
What is your greatest strength?
The interviewer wants to know: Have you thought about this? Is the strength relevant to training? Can you give a convincing answer? Answer choice: My greatest strength is XY. (Bring examples from school/work.)
What interests you most about this course of study?
The interviewer wants to know: Why do you want to pursue this degree? Answer choice: I am interested in the whole degree program because it brings me closer to my career goals (name goals). I am particularly interested in subject area 1, subject area 2, and subject area 3.
Did you do your best in school?
The interviewer wants to know: How eager are you to perform? Answer choice: Not only did I try to do my best in school, I actually try to do it all the time and everywhere, like here in the admissions interview.
What qualifications do you have?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you fit the college’s profile of requirements? Answer choice: List those qualifications that are emphasized by the university. Give examples.
What are your greatest accomplishments?
The interviewer wants to know: Are you realistic or are you exaggerating? Have you had any great accomplishments at all? Answer choice: Prepare example from school/work, highlight achievement, phrase confidently but not overly self-aggrandizing.
Can you work under pressure?
The interviewer wants to know: Are you able to work under pressure? Answer choice: Of course, I can actually work very well under pressure. (Bring example from school/work.)
What interests you most about the profession of social worker,…?
The interviewer wants to know: Why do you want to do the study? Answer choice: I am interested in the whole field, especially XY. I am particularly interested in 1., 2., 3. (Bring examples, explain why there is an interest in the job description).
For what reason should we record you in particular?
The interviewer wants to know: Can you convince him/her of your personality? Answer choice: Because your course of study will help me pursue my career goals (name goals). Because I meet the qualifications that your information material says you value (name qualifications + bring examples as evidence).
What do you offer that someone else can’t?
The interviewer wants to know: Can you convince him/her of your personality? Answer choice: I meet the qualifications that your information material says you value (name qualifications + bring examples as evidence).
Describe a difficult situation you have had to deal with.
The interviewer wants to know: What are your weaknesses? Are you good at dealing with them? Answer choice: Bring example from school/work. Explain how you handled the situation. Explain how you were able to resolve it successfully.
How would you describe your employer/class president?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you speak ill of former supervisors, colleagues, systems? Answer choice: Mainly tell the positive things. Definitely don’t talk badly about others.
I am not sure if you are suitable for this training.
The interviewer wants to know: Do you react calmly to attacks? Answer choice: I can only tell you why I think I am suitable for this training after all. The course of study prepares me very well for my career goal. That is why an apprenticeship here is very important to me. I meet the qualifications you emphasize (name qualifications and bring evidence).
What is your greatest weakness?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you admit to weaknesses? Are these weaknesses relevant to training? Answer choice: Do not mention any weaknesses related to education (e.g., “I am not a team player.”) Also, do not disguise strengths as weaknesses (e.g., “I am an extremely accurate person.”) Admit weaknesses where they do not affect college requirements (e.g., “I am not very athletic.”)
We have tried to admit students from your school before, but it never worked out.
The interviewer wants to know: Do you react calmly to attacks? Answer choice: I don’t know the other applicants. I can only tell you why I think I am already suitable for this course of study. (Name career goal, qualifications, strengths + examples).
Wouldn’t you feel more comfortable at another university?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you know why you want to study here? Answer choice: Well, it’s not so much about feeling comfortable for me. Another university is currently out of the question for me because this course of study prepares me optimally for my career goal. (Name career goal and subjects that are important for achieving it).
Which decisions are the most difficult for you?
The interviewer wants to know: What are your weaknesses? Answer choice: Prepare example from personal life, e.g., decisions in personal life that involve large investments (such as buying a car, buying a house, etc.).
Why have you changed studies before?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you have perseverance and stamina? Answer choice: Well, it wasn’t the degree itself, but rather the job prospects that deterred me. (Don’t speak ill of the other educational institution).
How many days of absence do you think are just tolerable in your studies?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you like to take days off? (This question is often asked at colleges with mandatory attendance). Answer choice: Only those days of absence that are unavoidable (e.g. illness) are tolerable.
What was your impression of your school/workplace?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you talk badly about the institution? Answer choice: I had a good impression, an excellent impression, because….
Name some work that you find difficult and explain why.
The interviewer wants to know: What are your weaknesses? Answer choice: Name activities that have little to do with UAS and the required qualifications. Do not give ridiculous examples.
What are your concerns?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you have any fears that bother you and that might be a hindrance to your studies? Answer choice: Fortunately, I don’t have any fears or worries at the moment.
Why shouldn’t we accommodate the others?
The interviewer wants to know: How do you talk about others? Do you have self-confidence? Do you have a plan? Answer choice: I don’t know the others/too little to compare myself to them. I can only say why you should take me. (Career goal, studying helps me reach career goal,…).
Why did you always do the internships in the same company?
The interviewer wants to know: Have you been protected? Are you not flexible? Answer option: Because my job at XY company was very interesting and the company always approached me and invited me to do an internship there again. Also, the pay was excellent.
What do you do if someone wants to copy from you who has not been able to learn much because of private problems?
The interviewer wants to know: How are your social skills? How do you feel about cheating? Answer choice: I will neither encourage it nor prevent it.
What kind of people do you like to work with?
The interviewer wants to know: 3-part question Part 1: What people do you like to work with? Answer choice: With honest, friendly, competent people.
Which people do you dislike working with?
Interviewer wants to know: 3-part question Part 2: What people are you disliked by? Answer choice: I can’t say that in such general terms. So far, I have always gotten along with all my colleagues.
How have you been able to work successfully with difficult people?
The interviewer wants to know: 3-part question Part 3: How do you get along with difficult people? Answer choice: With most, my enthusiasm still rubbed off. I am very good at motivating people to work.
How do you generally respond to instructions from editors?
The interviewer wants to know: Can you subordinate yourself? How do you handle criticism? Answer choice: I think the lecturers are there to teach me something. Therefore, I will follow their instructions. Even if they go against my will.
Describe a situation in which your work or ideas were criticized.
The interviewer wants to know: Can you admit mistakes? Where are your weaknesses? How do you handle criticism? Answer choice: (Describe a situation.) Criticism is not a bad thing. It helps you to become better.
Tell about yourself!
The interviewer wants to know: How can you sell yourself? Why do you want to study here? Answer choice: See chapter on self-presentation
Do you focus on personal satisfaction or career advancement?
The interviewer wants to know: Are you a career person or a slacker? Answer choice: Career advancement and personal satisfaction go hand in hand.
Where have you shown initiative?
The interviewer wants to know: Are you a doer? Answer choice: Mention school/career successes where you have shown initiative. Prepare examples.
Looking back, where did you do stupid things?
Interviewer wants to know: Did you do stupid things? When was that? Answer choice: Bring up distant events and do so with humor (e.g..: “Yes, back then I still thought that was how you got through the world….”).
How did your fellow applicants appear to you?
The interviewer wants to know: How do you talk about your competitors? Answer choice: Very competent, especially Ms., Mr. XY. (Only formulate positively).
How interested are you in sports?
The interviewer wants to know: Do you play sports? If yes, which one? Answer choice: If you do sports, mention mostly team sports and endurance sports. Do not mention watching soccer on TV.
Explain your function as a group/team member.
The interviewer wants to know: Are you a team player or a loner? What is your role in the group? Answer choice: Tell what you did in the last group work, what your tasks and functions were, and mention that you enjoy teamwork.
How do you handle a personal crisis?
The interviewer wants to know: How do you act in difficult situations? Do you have a personal crisis management system? Answer choice: I talk to my girlfriend, exercise, go out with friends, discuss the problem with parents/boyfriend/girlfriend/friends, get good advice and decide on the best possible solution.
What would you do if you had more free time?
The interviewer wants to know: Are you interested in the subject matter of the course outside of your studies? Answer choice: I would certainly spend more time with my boyfriend/girlfriend, but I would also have more time to read interesting articles about XY, for example.
Do you like to work alone?
The interviewer wants to know: Are you a team player? Answer choice: I prefer to work in a team, but within the team I also quite like to work independently. That is also necessary.
The interviewer wants to know: Are you a team player? Answer choice: For me, collaboration means teamwork. Within the team, however, everyone must work independently for the team to perform well. When working together, good work coordination is important first and foremost.
Teamwork fails because a colleague did not cooperate. How do you explain this to the editor?
The interviewer wants to know: How are your social skills? Answer choice: That was a team mistake, the whole team is responsible for that. The colleague will certainly not be told off.
When did you first hear about our study program?
The interviewer wants to know: How well did you prepare? Is your application a spur of the moment thing or are you pursuing a goal? Answer choice: I started looking for training opportunities for my career goal about three or four months ago. So that must have been around the end of February.
Do you know our homepage?
The interviewer wants to know: How well prepared and informed are you? Answer choice: Yes of course, I even did a lot of research on your homepage. What do you want to know?
What do you know about our university/about our study program?
The interviewer wants to know: How well prepared and informed are you? Answer choice: I can tell you about the curriculum, the lecturers, the time required, etc. What exactly do you want to know?
Do you know what costs you will face in this study program?
The interviewer wants to know: How well informed are you? Answer choice: Yes, tuition is XY, material costs are about XY (do research).
How do you actually plan to finance your studies?
The interviewer wants to know: Have you already thought about financing? Answer choice: I expect the following costs: tuition XY, material costs XY, housing XY, transportation XY, other living expenses XY. Funding is covered by my reserves/job/savings.
Do you know how long our college has been in existence?
The interviewer wants to know: How well informed are you? Answer choice: Give correct answer. Research beforehand.
What do you think is the content of course XY?
The interviewer wants to know: How well did you prepare and inform yourself? Answer choice: Give correct answer. Research beforehand.
What is a marketing expert, civil engineer, social worker,…. generally responsible for?
The interviewer wants to know: How well did you prepare and inform yourself? Answer choice: Give correct answer. Research beforehand.
How many hours per week will you spend studying?
The interviewer wants to know: Is the estimated amount of study realistic? Answer choice: Well the classes are about XY hours per week, at home I calculate another 20 learning hours on average.
Have you applied to other universities?
The interviewer wants to know: How important is this course of study to you? Answer choice: Either: No, or list similar courses of study. As an applicant, you have the right to make sure.
You have booked a vacation and a course is postponed to this time. What do you do?
The interviewer wants to know: How important is studying to you? Answer choice: I will try to make up the class or possibly join another group. If that doesn’t work, I will cancel the leave.
What do your parents/boyfriend/wife expect…? expect from you?
The interviewer wants to know: Who wants you to study? Answer choice: Parents/friend/wife give me freedom of choice. Everything is agreed upon in the family.
If you are not taken, what do you do then?
The interviewer wants to know: How seriously do you take the application? Answer choice: I will try again next year and work relevant to the industry in the meantime. (Mention alternative course of study if applicable).
Interviewing Better: The topic checklist for employers
You have gathered from the applicant’s resume and references that he or she is basically qualified for the job. However, the job interview you are now conducting with him or her is about a lot more than that – for example, his or her motivation and personality. After all, even the best qualifications are of little use to your company if the applicant doesn’t deliver on them or simply doesn’t fit into the team.
What questions do I ask an applicant? You should cover these 6 topics:
1. the job You want to know: Does the applicant understand what the job posting is about? Why is he interested in the job? Does he have a realistic idea of what to expect. Examples:
- “Why are you particularly suited for this position?”
- “What are your expectations for the job?”
2. the company You want to know: Does the applicant have a realistic impression of your company and the industry? Does he know the key facts and figures, and can he apply that knowledge? Examples:
- “What do you know about our company?” (Additional detailed questions about products, employee numbers, locations, etc. are also possible).
- “What developments do you see for our industry in the coming years?”
3. qualification of the applicant You want to know: What will the applicant do for you? What special benefits will he or she bring to the table? Examples:
- “What important experience will you bring to this position?”
- “What special challenges have you already overcome – and how?”
- “How did you make a difference in your last job?”
4. motivation of the applicant You want to know: What is the applicant’s work ethic? What are his or her personal and professional goals? Examples:
- “How would you describe the ideal job/employer for you?”
- “What did you particularly like or dislike about your previous job?”
- “Where do you see yourself in five years?”
5. soft skills and personality You want to know: Is the applicant a team player? Can he inspire others? Does he like to set the rules himself or does he tend to subordinate himself? Examples:
- “How do you react when a colleague disagrees with you?”
- “Describe a conflict at work and how you resolved it.”
6. dealing with criticism and change You want to know: How steady and confident is the applicant? Is he flexible in crisis situations, or does the slightest change throw him off course? How does he handle criticism? Examples:
- “What has changed about your work in recent years?”
- “Describe a setback you have experienced and how you handled it.”
Interview questioning techniques: 3 important categories.
The questioning technique you use in an interview depends on the type of answer you are aiming for. Most of the time, it makes sense to combine different questioning techniques. It is important that you choose the category appropriate to question. Otherwise, the candidate may answer too succinctly, digress from the topic, or feel unnecessarily pressured. 1. closed questions Definition: Questions that can be answered with a simple piece of information, often with a yes or no, can be answered. Examples:
- “Did you enjoy your last job?”
- “How long did you work there?”
The challenge for you: If you ask too many of these questions one after the other in an applicant interview, your counterpart will get the feeling of sitting in an interrogation. And you as an employer won’t get anywhere in the long run with closed questions either. Because the most important facts You already know the most important facts from your résumé; in the job interview, you want to find out what lies behind them. That’s why you shouldn’t dwell on it too long. Go to concretization and for follow-up questions in between, closed questions are very helpful. You will learn the most about the applicant’s personality with the next two categories of questions: 2. open questions Definition: Questions that require a thoughtful answer and are designed to get the candidate to reveal his or her attitude or opinion. This questioning technique requires the candidate to describe how he or she will deal with challenges and problems has dealt with. This can be very revealing and indicate character traits of the applicant. Open questions about past work experience of the candidate are also called “behavioral questioning techniques.” Examples:
- “What interests you most about the advertised position?”
- “Describe how you deal with stress.”
- “Can you give me an example of how you improved productivity in your previous job?”
The challenge for you: You need to make the questions as concretely otherwise the applicant may stray from the topic. And : be careful not to preface open-ended questions with “why” or “wherefore”. Otherwise, the applicant will quickly come under supposed pressure to justify himself. Rather, ask, “What were the reasons for decision XY?” 3. hypothetical questions Definition: Questions that ask the candidate to describe how he or she would meet a possible challenge would overcome. Hypothetical questions are useful when they refer to situations that may actually occur in the job to be awarded. Examples:
- “If you were in charge of this department, what would you do to increase productivity?”
- “Suppose crisis situation XY occurs. As the person in charge, how would you respond?”
The challenge for you: The Range of possible answers is wide. Nevertheless, they must each be evaluated appropriately. If you use hypothetical questions, think about an evaluation grid beforehand. evaluation grid: What is the best possible answer, which alternative solutions are also okay, which solution approach is unacceptable? Such a guide makes it easier to compare the interviewed candidates after the first round of interviews is over.
3 top questions to ask candidates – and how to interpret the answers
1. “Can you tell me a little about yourself?” This question sounds innocuous, but it has a lot going for it: in just a few sentences, a confident candidate should provide a brief summary of his or her strengths, significant accomplishments, and professional goals in just a few sentences, without unpacking half of his or her life story. Your main task here: Verify that the candidate’s answers match his or her resume. A digressive execution that leaves much unclear may indicate an incompetent or unfocused candidate. 2. “Can you describe a professional accomplishment in a way that everyone understands?” A good question to ask IT or tax applicants, for example: The candidate has professional competencies, which are usually a closed book to non-experts. The answer will show whether he or she is able to empathize with people outside the field. Get to the heart of the matter: Can he get by without “technical jargon”? Can he express himself in a generally understandable way? If not, it could be a sign that he is not comfortable outside his professional comfort zone and that cooperation with employees in other departments is suffering as a result – but this is precisely what is required in many companies today. 3. “You have been unemployed for the last few months. Why did you leave your last job and what have you been doing since then?” Important: Be careful not to make this question sound like an accusation. It’s not uncommon for even qualified employees to become unemployed. You can expect this answer: Candidates with a spotty work history should at least be able to explain any extended periods of unemployment and show that they used that time productively – for example, for continuing education. Image source © laflor – istockphoto.com Note 9 Screen Replacement Cost.
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